Black Springs Cemetery, South Australia

Black Springs

The first 25 years.

A traveller visiting the area in 1851 reported; The Black Springs, from which this spot is named, rise in a creek, the dip of which is below the front of the inn. At a former time these springs, which constantly throw up fine water collected in a line of troughs, were carefully defended from poaching by bullocks and horses but they are neglected now the protecting planks which formed their covering are displaced and decaying, and the open spots are masses of black slop and mud.

We crossed the creek into a township planned to be laid out on land belonging to Mr. Kingston, but apparently not named. It is proposed to be divided into about 70 allotments, bounded south and east by the Barossa-road. These allotments are 100 feet wide in front, by a depth of 200 feet.

Another township is planned on land belonging to Mr. Bowman, adjoining Tapley's section. This is intended to have frontages on the road to Apoinga and the Burra-road, and is apportioned into 38 four-acre blocks, with a triangular reserve of four acres where the roads meet.

The foundation and success of these townships will probably depend on the progress of the new mine of Carcoolta, two miles north-east of this place, of which doubts were expressed in answer to our enquiries. A large price was paid for the land containing this mine by the Great Copper Kings but every place, or any place, cannot be expected to turn out a Burra Burra adventure.

A settler in the neighbourhood told us that the climate here was peculiar — that rain was at all times scarce, even when other places had it; that when it came it was violent, and the district being subject to hurricanes and hard drifting showers, the effects of moisture were soon blown off by the eddies and drying winds, so as seldom to leave behind any lasting benefit.

This, we think, must be an extreme view of the peculiarities of the spot. Tapley had made a garden, which in a better season, it appeared to us, might have been productive, unless the opinion above quoted is better founded than we are disposed to believe.

Eventually the little settlement near the springs became a small town with some of the basic facilities found in most isolated communities. We leave it to the local reporter to tell us about some of the things that happened during its first 25 years.

April 30 1855 - John Stanway, the publican of the Emu Hotel, built in 1846 by Daniel Cudmore, was fined for allowing his lamp to be out between sunset and sunrise, on the previous Tuesday. He was fined 10 shillings and £1 costs. Henry Chandler took over the licence on 14 June 1858 and Malachi O’Gorman on 27 September 1864. The hotel finally closed early 1885 when Eliza Evans had charge of it.

1861 - On the 9th November at Kooringa, by Licence, by the Rev William Davidson, Mr John Low of Black Springs to Mary Ure, Hillside.

December 1862 - A meeting in connection with the Foreign Australasian Wesleyan Missionary Society was held on Wednesday evening, 3 December. The meeting was addressed by Rev. Thomas Lloyd, Messrs Williamson, Stevens and Newlyn. The attendance was good, and the collections were encouraging. The interesting and profitable meeting was closed with prayer.

The weather was very hot here during the past week, added to which two bush fires have been raging in the locality. The first, on Mr Dutton's run, consumed a garden, outhouse, and a large amount of feed, &c. It was extinguished by Mr S Porter, J.P., and others. The other fire destroyed a quantity of timber and feed. I fear they were both the result of negligence. A reward is offered for the apprehension of those who endanger property by carelessly leaving fires burning.

Early on Monday morning we experienced a great change in the weather, a severe storm with lightning, thunder, rain, and hail. I regret to state that the lightning and tempest destroyed the veranda of the Emu Hotel, without, however, doing further injury. I may add, in conclusion, that some time since a man named Kelly was killed near here, by being run over by his dray. He left a wife, and several children to lament their loss.

Many of the residents in this locality were much surprised and alarmed on Monday morning December 15, by severe shocks of an earthquake. Some of those persons who had risen rushed to their doors in their fright and wonderment to see the cause. In convening afterwards on the subject they described its effects in varied language.

Some felt the earth's oscillations from west to north others felt a kind of return shock proceeding from north to west. Some of those who had risen from their beds declare they felt the earth upheave and fall down again beneath them, others described it as waving up and down while those again who were in a recumbent position in their beds describe the earth's motion as a violent trembling. Many of the articles of furniture in the houses, those used for culinary purposes, and cups, saucers, glasses, appeared to sympathize with mother earth in her convulsive throes.

A sound accompanied the earthquake, or rather perhaps followed it, described by those who heard it as a loud rumbling noise, many vehicles running, distant thunder, a loud crash, mountains or heavy weights failing, &c. It produced no little fear on many minds, and some were heard to connect it with Christ's Second Advent into our world. The Rev. Thosmas Lloyd of Kooringa, while preaching here on Sunday evening, alluded to the earthquake, endeavouring to improve the solemn occurrence. I do not think its effects were extensive, as it was not heard a distance of 13 miles from here.

The hay harvest in this district is now nearly over. The sight of lofty and large stacks of hay reminds us of the Divine goodness. During the past week a person met with an accident. He became by some means entangled in the tether rope to which his horse was attached, which threw him down and kicked him very severely. I may add that snakes have been visible here, not only abroad but in houses. One was seen to enter the Wesleyan Chapel here lately while the congregation were assembled. The reptile, which was of great length, was killed,

The last day of the old year will long be remembered by the inhabitants of this district. The hot winds, which were like the breath of a furnace, blew from the north all day raising dust as to make it difficult to travel but in the evening there was a change of wind, and the weather during the first hours of the New Year was as cold as if it were midwinter. The New Year's festivities were celebrated here and many pedestrians of all ages, turned out to witness deeds which seemed to awaken as much interest as similar events in England.

April 1863 - In union with the sentiment and national motto Advance Australia, I am happy to report progress in this locality. The bridge over the creek so recently lost his life, has been repaired, and appears to be able to resist and control 'the wild rush of waters' which suddenly swept a fellow mortal into eternity. I am also glad to state that the new schoolhouse in connection with the licensed public school in the course of erection in the most central part of this locality will be completed in a few days, and opened with a public tea meeting. The original school was opened in 1861.

The building will be much more eligible for school and other purposes than the dilapidated building lately used. Divine worship has also been instituted in this place. Appeals are now being made to erect a suitable place of worship here in connection with the Church. Our small community is now being increased by the addition of a few settlers. Reports also speak of the probability of one of the abandoned mines in this locality being again worked, which will of course give an impetus to trade.

20 May 1863 - l am happy to state that the rain so long desired and greatly needed by agriculturists and others in this locality has fallen very copiously within the last few days. From the long drought the ground had become very hard. The cattle which in some cases had to go or be taken some miles to drink now find abundance near.

Last Saturday evening the new public day schoolroom was well filled with children and adults to witness the magic lantern exhibited by Mr Newlyn the licensed teacher. The various phantasmagorias greatly pleased the children and juveniles, for whom it was specially intended. The 'small fry' frequently manifested their delight in a manner that would ill become children of larger growth. All present appeared gratified.

April 1864 - On the 15th April, at the Emu Inn, Black Springs, Sarah, the beloved wife of H Chandler, aged 36, formerly of the Old Halfway House, Port Road. On the 18th of May at the Black Springs, by the Rev. Mr Chester, Alfred James, eldest son of Mr Coles of Aldinga to Annie Elizabeth, third daughter of Mr S Simpson, Spring Gully, near Hamilton.

March 1865 - The Primitive Methodist Chapel, near the Black Springs, was opened. The congregations at all the services were exceedingly large, and the collections very liberal. On the following day an excellent tea was provided by the ladies of the congregation, to which about 250 sat down. After the removal of the tables a public meeting was convened in the chapel, which was filled to excess, numbers not being able to gain admission.

The meeting was presided over by Mr John Hooper of the Black Springs, who, after giving an interesting and an appropriate address, called on the Rev. S Raymond, Circuit Minister, to read the report which showed the chapel to have cost far more than was anticipated.

Hope was expressed by Mr Raymond that before the meeting closed they would reduce the debt to £170. Much was done, and between £30 and £40 more promised to be paid within six months. The meeting was subsequently addressed in a telling manner by the Rev. J Warner, Rev. W Wiltshire, and Mr Harry.

The Primitive Methodist choir from Kooringa was in attendance, and rendered efficient aid both on the Sabbath and on the Monday. After the usual votes of thanks to the ladies for providing the tea, the most interesting meeting ever held closed with the benediction. The chapel is built of white freestone, and is an ornament to the neighbourhood.

December 1865 - In the House of Assembly Mr Cole's motion for £3.000 towards forming the road between Springfield and the Black Springs was negatived.

In 1866 it was reported that the district was both an agricultural and pastoral one, wheat being the chief article of produce and sheep the staple of the pastoral interest. The nearest places were Glendore, 1 mile SW, Waterloo 7 miles S and Apoinga 5 miles ESE. There was 1 hotel and the population about 70 people.

1866 - On the 1st January, near Black Springs, of diarrhoea, Thomas Edmund, infant son of Edmund and Frances Bowman, aged four months and one week. On 21 January, by licence, in the Primitive Methodist Chapel, Glendore, by the Rev. Samuel Raymond, Gustav Johann Martin Tohl, Black Springs, youngest son of the late Captain Hermann Tohl, Hamburg, Germany, to Eliza, second daughter of Mr John Whellum, Black Springs. On 18 February at the residence of the bride’s father, by licence, by the Rev. W S Worth of Kooringa, Mr Charles Warnes, of Black Springs to Harriet, youngest daughter of Mr Richard Need, farmer of Gadstone near Kooringa.

1868 - On 10 August by the Rev. D S Wylie, Mr Thomas Threadgold of Black Springs, to Miss Mary Ann Eliza Need, of Gadstone, near Kooringa.

September 1868 - I am sorry to see the ill feeling existing amongst some of the inhabitants, who are shooting each other's pigs, goats, &c. Numbers of men are on the tramp in search of employment on the railway. It must be a heavy tax on the publicans here to give food and shelter to so many who are without the means of paying for it.

The chapel requires enlarging for the requirements of the district, and we hope to see contributions towards it from apparently wealthy settlers who have lately joined this community.

Two impressive sermons were preached, in connection with the Primitive Methodist Sunday-school anniversary, which was well attended. At the public meeting Mr J Hooper occupied the chair. Mr Golding spoke on behalf of Sunday schools. The Rev. J Wills made an appeal to parents. He suggested the formation of a separate senior class, because young men and women did not like to be called children.

The Rev. J S Wayland spoke earnestly at length to teachers, parents, and children. The children of the school added much to the interest by rendering several pieces of music, conducted by Mr Goodridge. Recitations were given in a manner which delighted all. Votes of thanks were passed with acclamation.

The financial results £9 17s. 7d were highly satisfactory. Our township is slowly improving in roads. The kitchen gardens are looking splendid. The crops are, to all appearance, healthy still, a little more rain and sunshine would have a very beneficial effect. Wagons and drays are daily passing to carry the wool, so that this place looks busy.

1869 - DEATHS On the 27th November, at the Gums Station, George Parker, for 12 years the faithful servant of Mr Thomas S Porter, Koonoona, Black Springs.

TENDERS ACCEPTED at the Post Office Department for the Conveyance of mails between Kapunda and Black Springs for the period commencing 1st January, 1870, or as soon after as possible and ending 21st December, 1872. Cobb & Co. £250.

July 1870 - BLACK SPRINGS, July 9. Nominated as Councillors, T. S. Porter, G. Williams, H. Dunn, J. Barber, W. Stacy, J. Whellum, R. Roberts. A poll demanded, and immediately held. Porter, Barber, and Roberts declared elected Councillors. As Auditors J Hooper and P Tohl declared elected.

June 1871 - DISTRICT COUNCIL. Present All. Applications for work to be done from Hooper, Robinson, Carter, and others received immediate attention. Carting stone for district schoolroom, at 10 pennies per measured yard, accepted. Receipts, £11.10s. Payments, 10s. 6d.

July 1871 - DISTRICT COUNCIL. Present All. Work ordered — Ford across Scotsman's Creek, side drain on Mintaro road, cutting embankment in street of Black Springs Township, road near Pound. Applications for work from Dunn & Glasson. Passed over for present. Clerk to ascertain from Dr Vogt his charge for serving destitute for district at per annum.

September 1871 - The anniversary sermons of the Wesleyan Sunday school were preached by the Rev. B. Edwards to crowded congregations. The youngsters' tea was followed by a public one, when upwards of 120 people attended. Mr W. Carvosso, who presided opened the school in June, 1870, with 27 children and six teachers, but at the present time there are 45 scholars, including adults, and 10 teachers. Proceeds, £15 7s. 7d.

August 1872 - BLACK SPRINGS PLOUGHING MATCH. On Wednesday, August 21, upon Mr Pascoe’s property near Black Springs, a ploughing match was held. The day was disagreeable, the air of proper publicity interfered with the attendance and competition, still some visitors arrived from Farrells Flat, Steelton, Waterloo, Burra, and elsewhere within comparatively easy reach.

Host Broad provided a refreshment booth. The Secretary was Mr F Wark, and the Judges were Messrs Hudson, Jonas, and Mannan. In the double ploughing class two men only entered, and as one did not finish, and as Trelling, the other, was not considered worthy of the first prize he received the second. The single plough order was Ward first, Selby second.

Robinson in the boys' lot got the first place and Glasson the third, At night over 50 people had dinner at the hotel, where Mr Dawson presided, Mr Humphreys taking the vice-chair. After the customary round of speeches, toasts, and songs, a ball, well attended, closed the proceedings.

October 1872 - The following selections have been made since 'October 16 At £1 per Acre. Hundred Caltowie, County Victoria— Sections 39 and 40, W. Baynes, Black Springs, farmer, 469 acres. Hundred Yongala, County Dalhousie—Sec. 238. J. Hooper, Black Springs, farmer, 37 acres.

December 1872 - LAND SALES At £1 per Acre. Hundred Tarcowie, County Dalhousie— Secs. 46, 62, 63, E. Carter, Black Springs, farmer, 582 acres. Hundred Yongala, County Dalhousie—Sec. 13, M. E. Glasson, Black Springs, spinster, 283 acres.

December 1872 - MARRIAGES BELLS On the 29th November, at the Wesleyan Parsonage, Kooringa, by the Rev. J. B. Stephenson, Andrew Bell, of Apoinga, to Elizabeth Chapman, step daughter of Mr Broad, of Black Springs.

August 1873 - Memorials from the Councillors and 42 ratepayers of the District of Black Springs, from 18 residents in the Hundred of Apoinga, and from 10 German residents in the same Hundred, praying that the Hundred of Apoinga be added to the District of Black Springs, the new District to be called Black Springs and Apoinga also nominating Messrs Francis Wark, Joseph Mullen, and C. Lockyer as the first Councillors.

APOINGA AND BLACK SPRINGS PLOUGHING MATCH. This annual field match took place in Mr Williamson's paddock on Wednesday, August 13. The award-list was as follows, General Class.— Four Entries. Set of harness, George White —' Good crown, well packed, finish rather wide, general ploughing good and straight;' £3 10s., William Ward—'Crown well closed, general ploughing pretty good;' £1 10s., R. Roberts— 'Bad crown, open and crooked, finished, general ploughing good.'

'To an excellent dinner in the evening at the Fmu Hotel, Black Springs, over 40 settlers sat down. In the absence of Mr. E. Ward, M.P., Mr. S. Dawson, J. P., presided, and Mr. Dowd was the Vice-Chairman. Several of the speakers were strongly in favour of immigration, and urged the present necessity of it. Dancing was kept up till an early hour next morning.

November 1873 - Land selections At £2 per Acre. Hundred Tarcowie, County Dalhousie—Secs.99, 105, 246 acres, E. Bowman. Black Springs, farmer; Sec 100, 209 acres, W. Stacy, Black Springs, farmer,

1874 - DEATHS. 0n the 10th February, at Black Springs, Louisa Maude, infant daughter of W. and J. A. Earle, aged 5 months.

1875 - On the 16th February, at the residence of the bride's father, Black Springs, by the Rev. S Wellington, William Henry Tucker, to Emma Robinson.

December 1877 - Young locusts have made their appearance by millions about the Black Springs, but it is thought that they are too late to do any serious damage, as the wheat will be ripe before the pests are able to fly.

1878 - On the 31st July, at the Primitive Methodist Church, Black Springs, by licence, by the Rev. J H Williams, George Henry Dunn, to Eliza Turner. — On the 31st July, at the Primitive Methodist Church, Black Springs, by licence, by the Rev. J H Williams, William Turner, to Eleanor Maria Dunn.

January 1879 - LAND SELECTIONS. The following selections of land were made during the week ending Thursday, January 2, 1879 Hundred Morgan, County Dalhousie — Secs. 48, 49, 917 acres, C. Williamson, Black Springs, farmer.

Mrs Callaghan and her daughter Mary charged by District Ranger Hill with rescuing six cows lawfully seized for the purpose of being impounded, at Black Springs, were fined 33 shillings.

Black Springs Cemetery


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